Neospora caninum is a recently described coccidial parasite that was first isolated from a dog in 1988 and has subsequently been shown to infect a wide range of mammals. Neospora hughesi, a new species of this genus, has recently been isolated from the spinal cord of horses showing clinical signs of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. The random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction technique is capable of differentiating between N. caninum and N. hughesi.

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