Morphological and morphometric aspects of larval development of Umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis in Deroceras laeve and the effects of temperature on development rates in D. laeve and Deroceras reticulatum were investigated in the laboratory. Larval stages were best differentiated by separation of cuticular sheaths, tail structure, and viability following digestion. Growth in body and esophagus width was observed during the first-stage within the intermediate host, but the major increases in body length and width occurred immediately following the second molt. Larval development in D. laeve and D. reticulatum occurred more rapidly at warmer temperatures. The calculated threshold temperatures were 8.5 and 9.5 C in D. laeve and D. reticulatum, respectively, and 167 degree-days were required for development to third-stage larvae (L3) in both hosts. These thresholds are higher than those calculated from published data for the closely related Muellerius capillaris (4.2 C) but are similar to those for the more distantly related northern protostrongylid, Elaphostrongylus rangiferi (8.3–10.3 C). Conversely, degree-days required for development to infective L3 were more similar among the Muelleriinae than between this group and the Elaphostrongylinae. Developmental parameters for protostrongylid larvae may be influenced both by the environment and by features of the parasites and the intermediate hosts, including phylogeny.

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