A strain of Plasmodium vivax from India was adapted to develop in splenectomized Saimiri boliviensis, Aotus lemurinus griseimembra, A vociferans, A. nancymai, A. azarae boliviensis, hybrid Aotus monkeys, and splenectomized chimpanzees. Infections were induced via the inoculation of sporozoites dissected from the salivary glands of Anopheles stephensi and An. dirus mosquitoes to 12 Aotus and 8 Saimiri monkeys; transmission via the bites of infected An. stephensi was made to 1 Aotus monkey and 1 chimpanzee. The intravenous passage of infected erythrocytes was made to 9 Aotus monkeys and 4 chimpanzees. Gametocytes in 13 Aotus monkeys and 4 chimpanzees were infectious to mosquitoes. Infection rates were markedly higher in mosquitoes fed on chimpanzees. PCR studies on 10 monkeys injected with sporozoites revealed the presence of parasites before their detection by microscopic examination. The India VII strain of P. vivax develops in Aotus and Saimiri monkeys and chimpanzees following the injection of parasitized erythrocytes, or sporozoites, or both. The transmission rate via sporozoites to New World monkeys of approximately 50% may be too low for the testing of sporozoite vaccines or drugs directed against the exoerythrocytic stages. However, the strain is highly infectious to commonly available laboratory-maintained anopheline mosquitoes. Mosquito infection is especially high when feedings are made with gametocytes from splenectomized chimpanzees.

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