Neospora caninum-specific antibodies were detected in 60 of 172 (34.8%) dairy cattle by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in a herd from Parana State, Brazil. The seropositive animals included 47 of 126 (37.3%) adult cows, 7 of 29 (24%) heifers (1–2 yr), 4 of 15 (27%) heifers (5 mo−1 yr), and 2 precolostral samples. Data collected over a 9-yr follow-up period revealed that the proportion of pregnancies ending in abortion was 20% (31/154) among ELISA seropositive cows and 8% (15/193) among seronegative cows. The farm recorded 46 abortions, of which 31 (67.3%) were from seropositive cows. All sera positive by ELISA (n = 60) and sera from cows (n = 11) that were ELISA-negative but that had aborted were tested by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) at dilutions from 1:25 to 1:200. All sera from ELISA-positive cows (n = 47) had an IFAT titer of 1:25; 35 (74%) of these sera were also seropositive at a dilution of 1:200 (IFAT). Cows seropositive by ELISA had a 4-fold increased risk of having aborted at least once, compared to ELISA-seronegative cows. This association was statistically significant (P = 0.0016). The attributable fraction for this association indicated that approximately 76% of the risk for a cow having a history of abortion was attributable to seroconversion to N. caninum.

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