The oldest and most common parasite for which we have direct evidence, in the New World, is Enterobius vermicularis. Numerous archaeological sites, especially in the arid American southwest, have yielded fecal samples positive for pinworm ova, some of these dating back 10,000 yr. Reports of pinworm from the Old World are scarce. This article reports the first evidence of pinworm infection from Roman-occupied (30 BC–AD 395) Egypt.

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