This paper represents the first report of the nematode Anisakis simplex in the American shad (Alosa sapidissima) in its introduced range in the American Pacific Northwest. All the adult shad sampled from spawning populations in the Willamette (n = 9) and Umpqua (n = 12) rivers were infected with A. simplex with intensities ranging from 6 to 89 worms per fish. This preliminary investigation contrasts sharply with previous studies in the native range of American shad and confirms that this fish may be an important intermediate host for A. simplex in the Pacific Northwest. It is suggested that this new parasite–host relationship has led to an ecological expansion into rivers and Anisakis may present an emerging health risk for wildlife and some human consumers.

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