A new genus and species of philometrid nematode Dentiphilometra monopteri n. gen., n. sp., are described on the basis of the specimens found in the abdominal cavity of the ricefield eel (swamp-eel) Monopterus albus (Zouiev) from Liangzi Lake (the Yangtze River drainage system), Hubei Province, in central China. Dentiphilometra, assigned to the Philometrinae, differs from other genera of this subfamily mainly in the presence of a sclerotized oral ring armed on its inner surface by numerous small peribuccal teeth in the gravid female. The new species is characterized by minute cephalic papillae, a greatly developed anterior esophageal bulb separated from the cylindrical part of the esophagus, anterior extention of the esophageal gland anterior to the nerve ring, and by large caudal projections in females and equal spicules 0.051–0.096 mm long in males. This is the second philometrid species recorded from fishes of the Synbranchiformes.

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