The helminth parasite fauna of a natural population of the octodontid, Ctenomys talarum, was studied. Parasites that were found included the nematodes Heligmostrongylus sp. and Trichuris sp. Total prevalence of parasitism was 92.3%, mean intensity of infection was 22.7 worms, and mean abundance was 21 worms. Prevalence and mean abundance of infection with Heligmostrongylus sp. were higher in C. talarum males relative to females. Ecological and physiological causes, as well as the mating system of the host species, influence the likelihood of sex differences in parasite infection. The low parasite burden and diversity of C. talarum are associated with restrictions imposed by the subterranean habitat and with life-history traits of these rodents. Whether these findings apply to other Ctenomys spp. is unknown.

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