Two unusual myxozoan parasites are described from the somatic muscle of 2 reef fishes from Australia's Great Barrier Reef. Kudoa quadricornis n. sp. from the somatic muscle of Carangoides fulvoguttatus is morphologically consistent with other Kudoa sp., having 4 polar capsules and 4 shell valves. Kudoa quadricornis n. sp. is unique in that it has a pyriform spore body with a greater length than width (7.82–9.95 and 5.94–8.66 μm, respectively) and distinct posterolateral projections. Spores of Kudoa permulticapsula n. sp. observed within pseudocysts of the somatic muscle tissue of Scomberomorus commerson are different from those of all other myxozoans. The ovoid spores (length, 4.69–6.65 μm; width, 8.42–9.92 μm; thickness, 6.36–8.33 μm) contain 13 polar capsules with an equal number of shell valves. Phylogenetic analysis using small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences of K. quadricornis n. sp. and K. permulticapsula n. sp. showed that these parasites cluster within a clade comprised of Kudoa species. This brings into question the division of parasites of the Multivalvulida into genera based solely on polar capsule numbers.

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