We propose Tinamutrema as a new genus for Brachylaima centrodes (Braun, 1901) Dollfus, 1935 and for T. canoae, as a new species inhabiting tinamus in the Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Specimens from Costa Rica resemble B. centrodes in having an elongate body, pretesticular genital pore and terminal genitalia, intercecal uterine loops occupying all available space between the anterior testis and the intestinal bifurcation, an oral sucker width:pharynx width ratio of approximately 1:0.55, an oral sucker:ventral sucker width ratio of approximately 1:1, and vitelline follicles extending into the forebody closer to the pharynx than to the anterior margin of the ventral sucker and by living in the cloaca. They differ from B. centrodes in having vitelline follicles that do not extend as far anteriorly as those in B. centrodes, which extend anteriorly to the level of the anteriormost extent of the cecal “shoulders,” dense tegumental spination as opposed to sparse or no spination, relatively smaller cirrus with fewer spines, longer and more sinous pars prostatica, and forebody averaging 36% of total body length (TBL) as opposed to 42% TBL. Both species differ from other members of the Brachylaimidae in possessing a spinose cirrus and a cirrus sac containing both the cirrus and the pars prostatica. Preliminary phylogenetic assessment suggests that these traits are plesiomorphic, and thus the species are basal to the rest of the Brachylaimidae, whose diagnosis we emend accordingly.

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