The spiral intestines of 7 Tawny nurse sharks (Nebrius ferrugineus; Rhincodontidae) from Australia and French Polynesia were examined for tapeworms. These sharks hosted 5 new species of Pedibothrium. The 5 species were prepared for light and scanning electron microscopy. Whereas 3 of the species exhibit the bipronged hooks typical of members of Pedibothrium, 1 species was found to possess tiny unipronged hooks or to lack some, or all, hooks, and all individuals of the fifth species appeared to lack bothridial hooks entirely. Nonetheless, the otherwise remarkable similarities between these species and the species of Pedibothrium bearing bipronged hooks were considered to be sufficient to justify the placement of these 2 species in this genus. All 5 species possess proglottid features typical of Pedibothrium, including a uterus that extends anteriorly only to the level of the cirrus sac and a cirrus sac that is bent anteriorly and is crossed by the vagina. All 5 species also exhibit uniloculated bothridia. Of particular note was the fact that all 5 species exhibit bladelike spinitrichs with elongated distal tips, a form of microthrix currently known only from species of Pedibothrium. As a consequence, these species were treated as possessing modified hooks or as having lost hooks. The diagnoses of Pedibothrium and Onchobothriidae were emended to include these species. Each of the 5 new species bears a strong resemblance to 1 or more species of Pedibothrium hosted by a species of rhincodontid shark other than N. ferrugineus. Much of Southwell's type and voucher material of Pedibothrium was located and used to verify the identity of Pedibothrium kerkhami and many of the hosts from which Southwell's material of Pedibothrium was collected. This material suggests that P. kerkhami parasitizes Stegostoma fasciatum and not N. ferrugineus.

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