A morphological evaluation and genetic analysis (sequencing of ITS2 region of rDNA) of proteocephalidean cestodes from rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) in the Saint Lawrence Estuary, Canada, has shown their conspecificity with Proteocephalus tetrastomus, a specific parasite of smelt (Osmeridae), previously known only from northern Europe, Russia, and Japan. The parasite occurs only in larval, but not adult, smelt in the Saint Lawrence Estuary. Prevalence of larval smelt infection was 42% (n = 50), mean intensity 2.1 ± 2.4 and mean abundance 1.1 ± 1.0.

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