The second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of the ribosomal RNA genes of Diplozoon paradoxum and Paradiplozoon nagibinae were amplified and sequenced. The polymerase chain reaction product of D. paradoxum was bigger (840 bp) than that of P. nagibinae (820 bp). There was no intraspecific variability recorded in sequences from either species. Sequence comparisons and ITS2 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) pattern of 8 European diplozoid species aimed to resolve their identification and amend the previous studies. RFLP was used to distinguish the 2 species from each other and from P. bliccae, P. homoion, P. megan, P. pavlovskii, P. sapae, and Eudiplozoon nipponicum, using restriction enzymes AluI, HaeIII, HinfI, RsaI, and SphI. The criteria for morphological identification of 8 European diplozoids are also included, with the main morphological characters of clamps, trapeze spur, and anterior joining sclerites of 8 diplozoid species being illustrated. Combination of the shape and comparison of length of the trapeze spur and anterior joining sclerites could lead to accurate identification of diplozoid species.

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