From a natural population that inhabits the dry evergreen forest at Polonnaruwa, serum samples of 170 toque macaques were examined for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by the modified agglutination test. Of these, 21 (12%) were found with titers of 1:16 in 9, 1: 32 in 9, 1:256 in 1, 1:1,024 in 1, and 1:4,096 in 1. There was no evidence of maternal transmission of antibodies or congenital toxoplasmosis. None of the infected macaques died within 1 yr after sampling. Toxoplasma gondii infection was closely linked to human environments where domestic cats were common. Macaques having frequent contact with human settlements showed a significantly greater (P < 0.0001) prevalence (19% infected) than macaques restricted to forest habitat, none of which was infected. Although infection with T. gondii has been noted in several species of Asian primates, this is the first report of T. gondii antibodies in toque macaques (Macaca sinica) that are endemic to the island of Sri Lanka.

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