The distribution of Paraergasilus rylovi in 17 populations of unionids was investigated. In 1 unionid population, the parasite was studied regarding host age, size, sex, and the reproductive period (occurrence of egg sacs). Results from pooled material from the years 1987–1989 and 1996 (southern Finland, 11 populations) indicated that Anodonta piscinalis (n = 1,359) is the main host (total mean prevalence 71% and intensity ± SE of infection 16.4 ± 0.6). Pseudanodonta complanata (n = 106) was infected occasionally (3% and 1.3 ± 0.3), whereas Unio pictorum (n = 108) and U. tumidus (n = 17) were not infected. Results from 17 A. piscinalis populations showed that P. rylovi occurs in southern Finland but not in northern Finland. In A. piscinalis, the mean intensity of infection was higher in lake populations than in river populations. Both host age and length had a negative relationship with the intensity of P. rylovi infection. Host sex did not affect the intensity of infection. Egg sacs of P. rylovi were found from June to August. There was a tendency for higher intensities of infection in autumn. Infection by the digenean Rhipidocotyle fennica had no effect on the intensity of P. rylovi infection.

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