The complete mitochondrial (Mt) genome of the gastropod Biomphalaria glabrata, a major intermediate host for the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni, was sequenced. The circular genome, the first determined from a basommatophoran snail, is AT rich (74.6%) and the smallest Mt genome (13,670 nucleotides [nt]) characterized from mollusks to date. Sequences from 2 B. glabrata strains, M-line and 1742, differed by only 18 nt. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S and ND1 sequences confirmed the Brazilian ancestry of both B. glabrata strains. Gene predictions indicated 22 transfer RNA, 12S and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and 13 protein-encoding genes, as is typical for metazoans. Of the mollusk Mt genomes currently known, the gene order was most similar to that of stylommatophoran gastropods, concordant with the monophyly of pulmonate gastropods. Screening of GenBank (expressed sequence tags database [dbEST]) with the Mt sequence identified 108 entries from B. glabrata as Mt-derived sequences, including 12S and 16S rRNA sequences. Moreover, 11 sequences originating from the Mt genome of B. glabrata were identified among EST entries ascribed to intramolluskan stages of S. mansoni. The availability of this Mt sequence will facilitate further molecular investigations into the biology of Biomphalaria sp. and interactions between this intermediate host and intramolluskan stages of S. mansoni.

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