Here we describe the first species of sanguinicolid blood fluke (Trematoda: Digenea) from a polynemid fish. Chaulioleptos haywardi n. gen., n. sp. is described from Filimanus heptadactyla Cuvier, 1829 (Perciformes: Polynemidae), the sevenfinger threadfin from Sandgate, Moreton Bay (southeast Queensland, Australia). Chaulioleptos haywardi differs from existing sanguinicolid genera in the combined possession of the following 7 characters: 2 testes, an entirely postovarian uterus, a uterine chamber, separate genital pores, an H-shaped intestine with abbreviated anterior caeca, tegumental spines in incomplete ventromarginal transverse rows that are continuous along the length of the body, and vitelline follicles that are tightly compacted and subsequently appear to form a solid branching mass occupying the area anterior to intestinal bifurcation and extending posteriorly to the level of the posterior margin of the anterior testis. Chaulioleptos haywardi is most closely related to Paracardicola Martin, 1960 and Adelomyllos Nolan and Cribb, 2004.

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