A colony of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata fuscata) kept by a safari-style zoo in Japan experienced 9 sporadic cases of fatal neurological diseases, such as epilepsy and posterior paralysis, during the 12 yr from 1989 to 2001. This macaque colony consisted of approximately 30 animals, on average, during this period, and the macaques shared their living space with 11 American black bears (Ursus americanus) harboring zoonotic roundworms (Baylisascaris transfuga). Close to this enclosure, a cote for 2–3 raccoons (Procyon lotor) was placed, and raw sewage from this cote ran into a shallow drain in the area for macaques and bears. However, fecal examinations in recent years did not detect the infection of raccoons with zoonotic roundworms (Baylisascaris procyonis). Postmortem histological examination of the latest 2 ill macaques detected multifocal malacia in the brain; 2 ascarid larvae of 60 μm maximum width were encapsulated in the cerebrum and lungs of 1 of the animals. To determine the causative ascarid species of the fatal larva migrans, we analyzed 2 additional encapsulated Baylisascaris larvae collected from formalin-fixed lungs by morphological and molecular approaches. This sporadic outbreak is the second record of Baylisascaris larva migrans in animals in Japan.

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