The following Acanthocephala, all Echinorhynchidae, were found on examination of 229 amphibians and 191 reptiles collected in the Eastern Arc Range, Tanzania: Acanthocephalus bufonis from the frogs Arthroleptis stenodactylus and Arthroleptides martiensseni, the toad Nectophnyroides viviparous, and the chameleon Rhampholeon brevicaudatus; Pseudoacanthocephalus betsileo from the frogs Probreviceps macrodactylus and Ptychadero anchietae; and Pseudoacanthocephalus rhampholeontos n. sp. from the chameleons Rhampholeon sp. and Rhampholeon uluguruensis. Pseudoacanthocephalus rhampholeontos differs from the only other acanthocephalan occurring in chameleons, Pseudoacanthocephalus bigueti, in being a larger worm with fewer, smaller hooks in the proboscis armature. The status of the Acanthocephalus and Pseudoacanthocephalus is still problematic and requires further attention and study.

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