The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the soil because chickens feed from the ground. The prevalence of T. gondii in 50 free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from Amazon, Brazil, was determined. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by the modified agglutination test (MAT) and found in 33 (66%) chickens with titers of 1:5 in 3, 1:10 in 2, 1:20 in 1, 1:40 in 1, 1:80 in 2, 1:160 in 5, 1:200 in 9, 1:400 in 5, 1:800 in 2, 1:1,600 in 2, and 1:3,200 or higher in 1. Hearts and brains of 33 seropositive chickens were bioassayed individually in mice. Tissues from 17 seronegative chickens were pooled and fed to 2 T. gondii–free cats. Feces of cats were examined for oocysts, but none was found. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from 24 chickens with MAT titers of 1:5 or higher. Genotyping of these 24 T. gondii isolates by polymorphisms at the SAG2 locus indicated that 14 were type I, and 10 were type III; the absence of type II strains from Brazil was confirmed. Fifty percent of the infected mice died of toxoplasmosis, irrespective of the genotype.

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