Pygidiopsis pindoramensis Travassos, 1928, is redescribed from the holotype and specimens obtained from experimental infections of hamsters with metacercariae of the naturally infected poeciliids Poecilia vivipara and Phalloptychus januarius from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Ascocotyle (Phagicola) pindoramensis (Travassos, 1928) n. comb. is proposed, based on the presence of a solid, tapering muscular posterior prolongation of the oral sucker and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) mollienisicola (Sogandares-Bernal and Bridgman, 1960) is synonymized with A. (P.) pindoramensis because of the identical morphology and measurements of adults and metacercariae, similar spectrum of fish intermediate hosts (poeciliids), and the same site of infection of the metacercariae. Trematodes designated as Pygidiopsis pindoramensis, previously reported from Argentina and Mexico, represent another species of Pygidiopsis Looss, 1907, because they possess circumoral spines and their oral sucker is devoid of the posterior muscular prolongation. Data on the surface morphology of metacercariae and adults of A. (P.) pindoramensis are inferred from scanning electron microscopy observations.

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