Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were assayed in sera of 266 humans from 71 farms located at Rondônia State, Western Amazon, Brazil, by the modified agglutination test (MAT) and the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Antibodies were found in 195 humans (73.3%), with MAT titers of 1:25 in 11, 1:50 in 11, 1:100 in 16, 1:200 in 27, 1:400 in 38, 1:800 in 37, 1:1,600 in 22, and 1:3,200 or higher in 33. From the 71 farms visited, 69 had seropositive humans. Prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies increased with age of the people (P < 0.05), and no difference was observed in the occurrence by gender (P > 0.05). A sanitary questionnaire was applied in each farm, and statistical association between the serologic status and several variables were analyzed. Home-grown vegetable consumption and origin of drinking water (well or river) were the independent variables that displayed significant association (P = 0.002 and 0.02, respectively). Higher values of occurrence were found in people with consumption of home-grown vegetables (76.1%) and people that drink well water (75.4%) compared with people that did not consume this type of food (61.9%) and drink river water (55.2%). By IFAT (≥1:16), 194 of 266 (73%) humans were seropositive and there was a good correlation between MAT and IFAT.

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