The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of praziquantel treatment of Schistosoma japonicum infections in cattle and water buffaloes and to assess the natural rate of reinfection after treatment. The studies were conducted on 2 islands in the Yangtze River, Anhui province, China, from March 2003 to January 2004. The efficacy of praziquantel was 97% when applied orally wrapped in tree leaves at the recommended doses. The efficacy was measured using a miracidium hatching technique on fecal samples collected 20 days after treatment. The treatment did not give rise to any major side effects. Reinfection after treatment was high and occurred throughout the year in both cattle and water buffaloes. Age-related resistance was only observed in water buffaloes. It is concluded that although praziquantel is highly effective against S. japonicum in cattle and water buffaloes, a single annual treatment strategy does not effectively control transmission. New strategies for integrated control of animal schistosomiasis are needed to control schistosomiasis transmission more effectively in farm areas of China.

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