Few studies on the relationship between environmental factors and Trypanosoma cruzi transmission have been conducted in Ecuador. We conducted a cross-sectional study of household risk factors for T. cruzi seropositivity in 2 distinct geographical regions of Ecuador. Exposure information was collected via household surveys, and subjects were tested for serological evidence of T. cruzi infection. In total, 3,286 subjects from 997 households were included. In the coastal region, factors associated with seropositivity were living in a house with a palm roof (odds ratio [OR] = 2.63, 95% confidence interval, [1.61, 4.27]), wood walls (OR = 5.75 [2.04, 16.18]), or cane walls (OR = 2.81 [1.31, 6.04]), and the presence of firewood in the peridomicile (OR = 2.48 [1.54, 4.01]). Accumulation of trash outside the home was associated with a reduced risk of seropositivity (OR = 0.25 [0.12, 0.51]). In the Andean region, living in a house with adobe walls was the only factor predictive of T. cruzi seropositivity. In conclusion, risk factors for T. cruzi transmission in Ecuador varied by geographic region, probably because of differing behavior of the triatomine vector species in each region. An understanding of the transmission dynamics of T. cruzi in a particular area is necessary for the development of effective Chagas disease control strategies in those areas.

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