Eight species of Syphacia (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) have been reported from South America in rodents of the Sigmodontinae, only 1 of which has been recorded in Argentina. Syphacia (Syphacia) carlitosi n. sp. is described from the ceca of Akodon azarae bibianae and Akodon azarae hunteri (Sigmodontinae: Akodontini) captured in 3 provinces in the northeast region of Argentina. The new species is differentiated principally by the shape of the cephalic plate; distribution of submedian papillae and amphids; presence, extent, and shape of cervical alae in females; absence of lateral alae; absence of deirids; spicular and gubernaculum length; shape and structure of accessory hook of gubernaculum; and distance of mamelons, excretory pore, and vulva from the anterior extremity. This is the second record of Syphacia parasitizing rodents of the tribe Akodontini.

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