Neospora caninum is one of most important causes of abortion in cattle worldwide, and dogs are an important risk factor for N. caninum infection in cattle. Antibodies to N. caninum were determined in 184 (126 rural, 58 urban) dogs from the Punjab State, India, using commercial monoclonal antibody-based competitive ELISA and found in 16.8% of the animals. The prevalence of N. caninum antibodies was significantly higher in rural dogs (21.4%, 27 of 126) than city dogs (6.9%, 4 of 58). To our knowledge this is the first report of N. caninum infection in canines from India.

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