This study investigates the development of the Egyptian strain of Schistosoma haematobium and the resultant immunohistopathology and biochemical changes in organs affected. In addition, the response of different developmental stages of S. haematobium worms to praziquantel (PZQ) was examined. Schistosoma haematobium–infected hamsters were classified into 4 groups and were treated at day 35, 55, 75, and 95 postinfection (PI), respectively. Each group was subdivided into 3 subgroups. Two of them were treated orally with PZQ (300 mg/kg or 500 mg/kg divided equally on 2 consecutive days), and the third group was left without treatment. Treated groups were killed 20 days posttreatment. Infection with S. haematobium became patent 73 days PI; tissue egg load and worm fecundity were higher at 95 days and maximal 115 days PI, with an oogram pattern comparable to that in Schistosoma mansoni infection. In the liver, small cellular granulomas were observed 75 days PI, with preponderance of CD4+ T-cell phenotypes. In the urinary bladder, only submucosal focal Brunn's-nest formation and angiogenesis without typical granulomas were observed. Ninety-five and 115 days PI, confluent granulomata with multiple eggs in the center were observed in the liver and urinary bladder, with a preponderance of CD8+ positive T cells in the liver and hyperplasia of the urinary bladder epithelium with cystitis cystica and papillae formation. One hundred percent worm eradication was recorded with the higher dose of PZQ in animals treated 75 and 95 days PI. In conclusion, in spite of the long prepatent period of the Egyptian strain of S. haematobium, sensitivity to PZQ was recorded soon after infection. Granulomata were similar to those of S. mansoni in the livers and urinary bladders, but they were confluent with multiple eggs in the centers, hyperplasia of the urinary bladder urothelium with cystitis cystica, papillae, and Brunn's-nest formation predictive of malignant changes with no hepatocyte dysplasia.

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