A morphological phylogenetic hypothesis of the relationships among the species of Africana is provided. The phylogenetic analysis suggests that Squamata or Amphibia were ancestral hosts for species of Africana, with dispersal events to Testudinidae; a second transfer to amphibians is also suggested. On the basis of biological data for these parasites and the paleogeographic reconstructions, a South American origin for Africana spp. is indicated, with subsequent dispersal events to Africa. It is further proposed that Chamaleonidae acquired species of Africana after their ‘out-of-Madagascar’ dispersal events to Africa.

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