Diaphorocleidus orthodusus n. sp. and Diaphorocleidus kabatai (Molnar, Hanek and Fernando, 1974) Jogunoori, Kritsky, and Venkatanarasaiah, 2004 are detailed from Astyanax orthodus and Astyanax aeneus, respectively. Palombitrema heteroancistrium (Price and Bussing, 1968) is described from specimens collected from A. aeneus, and Urocleidoides strombicirrus (Price and Bussing, 1967) is reported for the first time from A. aeneus and Astyanax fasciatus in Panama. Characithecium costaricensis (Price and Bussing, 1967) n. comb. is detailed based on specimens from A. aeneus. Characithecium costaricensis is characterized by having overlapping gonads, a medioventral vaginal aperture, a copulatory complex consisting of single counterclockwise coil of the copulatory organ that is articulated to the accessory piece, and a haptor having 2 pairs of anchors, dorsal and ventral bars, and 14 hooks. Measurements of body size varied substantially among individual worms, both within and across different host species and locations. However, the morphological differences were insufficient to separate species of Characithecium. This result suggests limited parasite speciation across sympatric species of Astyanax in Mexico and Panama.