A new species of parasitic nematode, Capillostrongyloides congiopodi n. sp. (Capillariidae), is described based on specimens collected from the gall bladder of the horsefish, Congiopodus peruvianus Cuvier and Velenciennes (Congiopodidae, Scorpaeniformes), from the Patagonian Shelf, Argentina (45–48°S; 60–64°W). Among the 9 species described so far in the genus, the new species most closely resembles C. norvegica Moravec and Karlsbakk, 2000, by the presence of its conspicuously elevated anterior vulvar lip in females; however, it is readily distinguished from it by having a larger body size, larger eggs with protruding polar plugs, the shape and length of the spicule, and mainly by the general morphology of the caudal bursa of males. In addition, the site of infection, i.e., stomach versus gall bladder. This is the first Capillostrongyloides species reported from fishes in the southern Atlantic Ocean.