A new nematode species, Philometra poblana n. sp., is described based on specimens recovered from skin at the base of the pectoral fins of the cichlid Cichlasoma istlanum (Jordan and Snyder, 1899) from the water spring El Borbollon, in the State of Puebla, Mexico. The new species most closely resembles Philometra gymnosardae and Philometra ophisterni; however, P. poblana can be easily differentiated from the other species by the length of gravid females (7.10–10.43 vs. 14.8– 27.0 and 28.67–39.30 mm, respectively), length of caudal projections (0.015–0.023 vs. 0.047 and 0.006–0.009 mm high, respectively), site of infection (skin at base of pectoral fins vs. abdominal cavity, both species), and the host species (Cichlidae vs. Synbranchidae and Scombridae).

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