A new species of nematode, Cucullanus costaricensis n. sp., is described from the Red Sea catfish Bagre pinnimaculatus from Río Tempisque, Costa Rica. The new species is characterized by the following traits: spicules and gubernaculum length (0.48 ± 0.02 [0.45–0.50] and 0.20 ± 0.02 [0.18–0.21], respectively); a protruding cloacal region in males, and the arrangement of caudal papillae (1 medial unpaired precloacal papilla and 10 pairs of papillae: 3 precloacals [first pair subventral and anterior to ventral sucker; second and third pairs posterior to ventral sucker; second pair asymmetric and subventral; third pair slightly subventral and closer to cloacal opening], 3 subventral adcloacal pairs [pairs 4–6], and 4 pairs of postcloacal papillae [seventh pair lateral, eighth pair subdorsal, ninth and tenth pairs subventral]); and lateral phasmids between the seventh and eighth pairs of postcloacal papillae. This finding represents the first record for a species of Cucullanus in Central America.

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