Stilestrongylus lanfrediae n. sp. is described from the small intestine of Oligoryzomys nigripes (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae) collected in the Atlantic Forest (Rio de Janeiro State, Teresópolis, Brazil). The new species shows some similarities to Stilestrongylus stilesi, Stilestrongylus freitasi, Stilestrongylus inexpectatus, Stilestrongylus moreli, and Stilestrongylus andalgala, but it can be distinguished from these species by the following combination of characters: 26 ridges in males and 25 in females at the mid-body, asymmetrical caudal bursa with a pattern of type 2-2-1, rays 6 markedly shorter than other lateral rays, rays 8 inserted asymmetrically on dorsal trunk and shorter than other species, and a proportion of spicule length in relation to body length (SpL/BL) of 25–29%. The new species is also distinguished from other species of Stilestrongylus by the asymmetry of the branches of the dorsal ray and by having the longest spicules.

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