Cases of visceral leishmaniasis, one of the most neglected tropical diseases, are increasing globally. Dogs are considered an important reservoir host for visceral leishmaniasis in people. The first cases of human visceral leishmaniasis in Vietnam have recently been reported. Blood samples were collected from 41 dogs in rural Vietnam. Sera were examined for antibodies to visceralizing Leishmania spp. by canine immunochromatographic strip assays based on recombinant K39 antigen. Antibodies to Leishmania spp. were not detected in any of the dogs tested. Results from this study suggest that rural dogs are not likely to be involved in the emergence of human visceral leishmaniasis in Vietnam.