The present investigation reports the results from a 2-yr study conducted on the prevalence and associated lesions of the nematode Cheilospirura (Acuaria) hamulosa (Nematoda, Acuarioidea) in a sample size of 478 indigenous fowl collected from different localities of Kashmir Valley, India. The investigation revealed the annual prevalence for the nematode for the first and second yr of study to be 3.4% (8/233) and 3.7% (9/245), respectively, with an overall prevalence of 3.5% (17/478). Parasitized birds did not present with clinical signs. Despite the low parasite burdens, the lesions induced by C. hamulosa were severe. Histological examination of the infected gizzard revealed discrete and coalescing nodular and cystic lesions in the mucosa and musculature which contained sections of the parasite. Cellular reaction in the lesions was characterized by a large number of lymphocytes, monocytes, plasma cells, heterophils, and, in some of the sections, severe eosinophilic reaction. The mucosa and submucosa showed markedly thickened and diffuse mononuclear infiltration as well as reactive lymphoid nodules.

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