Abstract

Pesticides can elevate trematode infections in amphibians. However, direct adverse effects of pesticides on embryos and free-living stages of trematodes have not been thoroughly explored, despite the potential for these effects to reduce amphibian trematode infections. We measured the effects of atrazine, glyphosate, carbaryl, and malathion on embryo and miracidium (free-living stage) survival of Echinostoma trivolvis, a common trematode of amphibians. We found no evidence of biologically relevant effects of these pesticides at ecologically relevant concentrations.

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