Splenectomized Aotus lemurinus griseimembra, A. azarae boliviensis, A. nancymaae, A. vociferans, and Saimiri boliviensis monkeys were infected with the Uganda I/CDC strain of Plasmodium malariae. The maximum parasite counts were lower if the animals had been previously infected with Plasmodium vivax. Mosquito infection was concentrated in the 12 days following the rise in count above 1,000/µl. Mosquito infection and parasite counts were highest with A. l. griseimembra. Anopheles freeborni was more readily infected than An. gambiae, which was more readily infected than An. stephensi. Parasite counts and mosquito infection with P. brasilianum were much higher in S. boliviensis monkeys than with the Uganda I strain of P. malariae in this host, suggesting marked differences between the host-parasite-vector relationships and indicating that P. brasilianum in S. boliviensis monkeys may be a better reflection of the relationship of P. malariae in the human host.