Anoplocephalid cestodes have a worldwide distribution, but relatively few species are known from South American rodents. By examining the collections of the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology and the United States National Parasite Collection, 6 new species of Monoecocestus Beddard, 1914, are described, along with a redescription of Monoecocestus mackiewiczi Schmidt and Martin, 1978, based on the type specimens. The discussion includes commentary about uterine development, an important taxonomic character of the family, the vaginal dilation in immature segments (a character of potential taxonomic importance), and the implication of host usage to the evolutionary history and biogeography of species in this genus.

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