Oswaldocruzia cartagoensis n. sp. (Strongylida: Molineidae) from the intestines of Bolitoglossa subpalmata (Caudata: Plethodontidae) is described and illustrated. Oswaldocruzia cartagoensis n. sp. represents the 86th species assigned to the genus and the 39th species from the Neotropical region. It is most similar to the Neotropical species of the genus that possess type I bursa, i.e., Oswaldocruzia bonsi, Oswaldocruzia brasiliensis, Oswaldocruzia lopesi, Oswaldocruzia neghmei, and Oswaldocruzia vitti. Of these, O. bonsi, O. brasiliensis, and O. neghmei lack cervical alae, rib 4 in individuals of O. vitti reaches the edge of the bursal membrane, species of O. lopesi and O. cartagoensis can be separated on the basis of spicule structure, the blade in O. lopesi is bifurcate, and that of O. cartagoensis terminates in 6–8 fine points. In addition to the new species of Oswaldocruzia, Cosmocera parva, Cosmocera podicipinus, and acanthocephalan cystacanths were also found.