During an investigation of the biodiversity and structure of parasite communities among native populations of the erythrinid fish Hoplias malabaricus (Characiformes) from 7 rivers in Brazil, the following monogenoidean (Dactylogyridae) species were found: Urocleidoides malabaricusi n. sp., Urocleidoides naris n. sp., Urocleidoides cuiabai n. sp., Urocleidoides brasiliensis n. sp., and Urocleidoides eremitus Kritsky, Thatcher, and Boeger, 1986. Specimens considered as a new genus of Dactylogyridae were also found. The new species are mainly distinguished from the other 14 species of Urocleidoides in the general morphology of their copulatory and anchors/bar complexes. These new species and the new dactylogyrid genus are described, as well as supplemental observations and new illustrations of U. eremitus are provided. The present findings expand the known geographical distribution of species of Urocleidoides to southeastern and midwestern Brazil. A high speciation of this genus in the tropics is hypothesized, and it is briefly discussed.