The protozoan Neospora caninum and the bacterium Brucella abortus are well-recognized causes of abortion in dairy cattle. Serum samples (n  =  240) from aborting (n  =  141) and at-risk (n  =  99) animals from 5 herds with high abortion rates in Punjab Province, Pakistan, were tested for antibodies to N. caninum using monoclonal antibody–based ELISA and for antibodies to B. abortus using the serum agglutination test. Antibodies to N. caninum and B. abortus were detected in 105 (43.8%) and 135 (56.3%) cattle, respectively. Prevalences of antibodies to N. caninum and B. abortus were higher in aborting cows (46.8% and 76.6%, P < 0.05) than in animals at risk (39.4% and 27.3%, P > 0.05). Sixty-six animals (27.5%) were seropositive to both N. caninum and B. abortus, and results showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) with respect to geographical district, breed, and age. This is the first report of N. caninum infection among dairy cattle herds in Pakistan.

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