Toxoplasma gondii infection was studied in 41 Japanese serows (Capricornis crispus), a goat-antelope in mainland Japan. Blood and muscle specimens were collected from 41 subjects between 2006 and 2010. Presence of antibodies to T. gondii in the sera was examined by using the latex agglutination test (cutoff titer 1∶32); 10 of 41 (24.4%) were seropositive. Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected in muscle tissue of 1 seropositive serow using a semi-nested PCR assay for the B1 gene. A partial nucleotide sequence (220 bp) corresponding to the B1 gene of T. gondii was obtained by direct sequencing; the sequence was 99.1% identical to that of the RH strain. This study is the first report to show direct evidence for the T. gondii infection in Japanese serows.