Abstract

To investigate whether schistosomiasis can contribute to appendiceal goblet cell carcinoid, appendix samples were obtained from 3 patients with combined appendiceal schistosomiasis and goblet cell carcinoid (CSG), 6 patients with goblet cell carcinoid only (GCC), 12 patients with appendiceal schistosomiasis only (ASO), and 12 cases with normal appendix (NA), all of similar gender ratio and age distributions. Hematoxylin and eosin-(H&E) stained sections were studied in 3 CSGs and 12 ASOs to diagnose schistosomiasis by detecting schistosome eggs. H&E and alcian blue/PAS-stained sections and immunohistochemistry of CgA and CEA were employed to establish the diagnosis of GCC in the 3 CSGs and 6 GCCs. Then, to determine whether schistosomiasis can contribute to GCC, immunostaining patterns of CgA and Ki67 in mucosal crypt epithelia were investigated and compared among all 33 cases. Our results revealed typical histological and immunohistochemical phenotypes of GCC in the 3 CSGs and 6 GCCs and schistosome egg deposits in 3 CSGs and 12 ASOs. We found that the expression levels of both CgA and Ki67 in mucosal crypt epithelia were significantly higher in CSG than in GCC (P < 0.05  =  0.013 and P  =  0.004, respectively). Moreover, high expression levels of both CgA and Ki67 in mucosal crypt epithelia favor ASO as compared to NA (P < 0.001  =  3.4 × 10−6 and 3.1 × 10−5, respectively). Our findings suggest that appendiceal schistosomiasis was associated with increased proliferation and neuroendocrine differentiation of mucosal pluripotent crypt cells and that it may contribute to GCC, which is documented to originate from mucosal pluripotent crypt cells in mucosal crypt epithelia.

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