A new species of Capillaria is described on the basis of specimens recovered from the intestine of the swamp rat Scapteromys aquaticus (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae) from Argentina. Capillaria alainchabaudi n. sp. and a peculiar species from Australian marsupials are the only 2 species of Capillaria sensu stricto parasitic in mammals. A comparison with the Australian species and with the 18 species of this genus described from other vertebrates from the Western Hemisphere is given. The separation of the new species is based on morphologic and morphometrical features, such as intestine ending in cloaca beside ejaculatory duct, 2 lateral nonmembranous caudal lobes, 2 pairs of caudal non-pedunculated papillae, terminal part of cylindrical cirrus ornamented with thin and thick spines, spicule with apex not well sclerotized in the males, a conspicuous vulvar appendage in the females, and 2 bacillary bands. A survey of the literature revealed that the species of Capillariinae from rodents belong to 9 genera, and the total number of species is low compared to the high diversity and abundance of the hosts, particularly if the modern Muroidea are considered.