Serum samples from 376 randomly selected adult cattle, from 25 farms located in 3 counties (Arad, Bihor, and Timiş) from western Romania, were sampled for Neospora caninum antibodies using a commercial ELISA-kit. Seroprevalence values and risk factors for neosporosis (cow age, breed, herd size, farming system, previous abortion, and number of farm dogs) were examined using a generalized linear mixed model with a binomial distribution. Overall, the seroprevalence of N. caninum was 27.7% (104/376) with a prevalence of 27.9% (24/86) in Arad, 26.9% (25/93) in Bihor, and 27.9% (55/197) in Timiş. Of 25 cattle herds, 23 were seropositive with a prevalence ranging from 10.0 to 52.2%. No correlation was found between N. caninum seropositivity and age, breed, herd size, breeding system, and previous abortion. The number of farm dogs was the only factor (PWald  =  0.03) positively associated with seroprevalence in cows and can be considered the risk factor in the acquiring of infection. The present work is the first regarding serological evidence of N. caninum infection in cattle from western Romania.

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