Haemoproteus anatolicum n. sp. was identified in the tortoise Testudo graeca. The new species is described based on the morphology of its blood stages and a segment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, which can be used for molecular identification and diagnosis. Chelonian haemoproteids recorded in the past were defined solely on the basis of their morphological characteristics. The chelonian haemoproteid we describe as a new species has a close genetic relationship to lizard haemoproteids, i.e., Haemoproteus ptyodactylii and Haemoproteus kopki. The new species description provides significant new information for little-known chelonian haemoproteids.