Homalometron palmeri n. sp. is described and reported from the following fishes in the northern Gulf of Mexico: Micropogonias undulatus, Sciaenops ocellatus, Bairdiella chrysoura, Pogonias cromis, Fundulus grandis, Fundulus similis, and Eucinostomus argenteus. This species historically has been misidentified as Homalometron pallidum by some, and treated as Homalometron sp. by others. The new species differs from H. manteri by having a smaller body size, relatively longer postcecal space ranging from 7 to 15% of body length compared with 6–8%, body spines from 12 to 17 μm long compared with 15–20 μm, and an oral-to-ventral sucker width ratio of 1:1.2–1.3 compared with 1:1.3–1.5. Ribosomal DNA sequences from H. palmeri n. sp., H. pallidum, Homalometron manteri, and Homalometron pseudopallidum are compared and the new species is found to be most similar to H. manteri, a sympatric species. Comparison between 2 mitochondrial genes from H. palmeri n. sp. and H. manteri provided further evidence for their status as distinct species. Pairwise comparison of 503 aligned bases from ND1 gene revealed 33 variable sites (6.5%) between the 2 species. Pairwise comparison of 1,152 aligned bases from COI gene revealed 73 variable sites (6.3%) between the 2 species. Interspecific variability in mitochondrial sequences between the 2 species was 3–16 times greater than intraspecific variability in either species.