A seroepidemiological survey was carried out in China during 2009–2010 to determine the extent of circulating antigens (CAg) for Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the Chinese population using the gold immunochromatographic assay, with the objective of elucidating the nationwide prevalence of angiostrongyliasis in China. A total of 1,730 blood samples was collected and assayed from the general adult population (the “general group”), and those involved in aquaculture or processing of snails Achatina fulica and Pomacea canaliculat (the “occupational group”) from 5 provinces (Fujian, Hunan, Guangdong, Guangxi, and Zhejiang) and 1 municipal city (Beijing). The overall seroprevalence for the “occupational group” was 7.4% (40/540), which was significantly higher ( P < 0.001) than that of the “general group” (0.8%, 9/1,190). The seroprevalence in males (9.5%) was significantly higher than in females (4.2%) ( P < 0.05). These results demonstrate that angiostrongyliasis represents a significant zoonotic disease in China, requiring the strengthening of food safety for control of this food-borne disease.