Sera from 186 sheep, 83 cattle, and 103 water buffaloes from Punjab, India, were evaluated for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using a commercial ELISA kit. This study was planned using a 2-stage random sampling procedure and sampling software ‘survey toolbox.’ In the first step, villages were selected randomly from a sampling frame of all the villages of Punjab, followed by selection of owners and animals in the second step. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 7 of 186 sheep, 2 of 83 cattle, and 3 of 103 buffaloes. Results indicate a low prevalence of T. gondii in ruminants tested.
Neospora caninum is one of most important causes of abortion in cattle worldwide, and dogs are an important risk factor for N. caninum infection in cattle. Antibodies to N. caninum were determined in 184 (126 rural, 58 urban) dogs from the Punjab State, India, using commercial monoclonal antibody-based competitive ELISA and found in 16.8% of the animals. The prevalence of N. caninum antibodies was significantly higher in rural dogs (21.4%, 27 of 126) than city dogs (6.9%, 4 of 58). To our knowledge this is the first report of N. caninum infection in canines from India.