Environmental heterogeneity largely dictates the spatial distributions of parasites and therefore the susceptibility to infection of host populations. We surveyed avian malaria infections in Rufous-collared sparrows ( Zonotrichia capensis ) across replicated altitudinal and latitudinal transects along the western slope of the Peruvian Andes to assess geographic patterns of prevalence. We found malaria infection prevalence peaked at midelevations along all 3 altitudinal transects ( x̄ ≈ 2,733 m), with highest overall prevalence observed in the northern transect. We observed low levels of malarial parasite diversity, with 94% of infected birds carrying a single Haemoproteus (subgenus Parahaemoproteus ) strain. The remaining infected birds harbored either a single alternate Haemoproteus or 1 of 2 Plasmodium strains. Our data suggest that temperature and precipitation are the primary drivers of the spatial patterns in avian malaria prevalence along the western slope of the Andes.